Language is considered an important precursor for executive function (EF) development, with advantages shown for bilinguals. The current study explored the impact of early bilingual language experience (spoken and sign language) on executive functions. Participants were deaf college students with cochlear implants. Participants language experiences were diverse. They varied in American Sign Language (ASL) and English proficiency, reported various ages for sign language acquisition, and reported different ages of implantation. Results indicate that age of acquisition, age of implantation, and English and ASL proficiency have no effect on these participants’ performance on the Color Trails Test, a measure of EF. Future recommendations would be to use a more robust measure of EF to detect differences among deaf individuals.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Executive functions (Neuropsychology)--Testing; Deaf college students--Psychology; Bilingualism--Psychological aspects; Cochlear implants--Psychological aspects
Experimental Psychology (MS)
Department, Program, or Center
Peter C. Hauser
Contreras, Jessica, "Accounting for the Language Variance in Executive Function" (2016). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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