In this work we demonstrate two separate forms of augmented reality environments for use with minimally-invasive surgical techniques. In Chapter 2 it is demonstrated how a video feed from a webcam, which could mimic a laparoscopic or endoscopic camera used during an interventional procedure, can be used to identify the pose of the camera with respect to the viewed scene and augment the video feed with computer-generated information, such as rendering of internal anatomy not visible beyond the image surface, resulting in a simple augmented reality environment. Chapter 3 details our implementation of a similar system to the one previously mentioned, albeit with an external tracking system.
Additionally, we discuss the challenges and considerations for expanding this system to support an external tracking system, specifically the Polaris Spectra optical tracker. Because of the relocation of the tracking origin to a point other than the camera center, there is an additional registration step necessary to establish the position of all components within the scene. This modification is expected to increase accuracy and robustness of the system.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Endoscopic surgery--Technological innovations; Augmented reality
Computer Engineering (MS)
Department, Program, or Center
Computer Engineering (KGCOE)
Bensch, Alexander Maxwell, "Toward Real-Time Video-Enhanced Augmented Reality for Medical Visualization and Simulation" (2015). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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