Doping profiles are engineered to manipulate device properties and to determine electrical performances of microelectronic devices frequently. To support engineering studies afterward, essential information is usually required from physically characterized doping profiles.
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) and Electrochemical Capacitance Voltage (ECV) profiling are standard techniques for now to map profile. SIMS yields a chemical doping profile via ion sputtering process and owns a better resolution, whereas ECV and SRP produce an electrical doping profile detecting free carriers in microelectronic devices. The major difference between electrical and chemical doping profiles is at heavily doped regions greater than 1020 atoms/cm3. At the profile region over the solubility limit, inactive dopants induce a flat plateau and detected by electrical measurements only. Destructive techniques are usually designed as stand-alone systems to study impurities. For an in-situ process control purpose, non-contact methods, such as ellipsometry and non-contact capacitance voltage (CV) techniques are current under development.
In this theses work, terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is utilized to achieve electrical doping profile in both destructive and non-contact manners. In recent years the Terahertz group at Rochester Institute Technology developed several techniques that use terahertz pulses to non-destructively map doping profiles. In this thesis, we study a destructive but potentially higher resolution version of the terahertz based approach to map the profile of activated dopants and augment the non-destructive approaches already developed. The basic idea of the profile mapping approach developed in this MS thesis is to anodize, and thus oxidize to silicon dioxide, thin layers (down to below 10 nm) of the wafer with the doping profile to be mapped. Since the dopants atoms and any free carriers in the silicon oxide thin film are invisible to the terahertz probe this anodization step very effectively removes a ‘thin slice’ from the doping profile to be mapped. By iterating between anodization and terahertz measurements that detect only the ‘remaining’ non-oxidized portion of the doping profile one can re-construct the doping profile with significantly higher precision compared to what is possible by only a single non-destructive measurement of the un-anodized profile as used in the non-destructive version of our technique.
In this MS thesis we explore all aspects of this anodization based variation of doping profile mapping using free space terahertz pulses. This includes a study of silicon dioxide thin film growth using a room temperature electrochemical oxidation process. Etching procedures providing the option to remove between successive anodization and terahertz measurement steps. THz-TDS measurements of successively anodized profiles will be compared with sheet resistance and SIMS measurements to benchmark and improve the new technique.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Semiconductor doping--Measurement; Silicon--Electric properties; Silicon--Anodic oxidation; Terahertz spectroscopy
Materials Science and Engineering (MS)
Department, Program, or Center
School of Chemistry and Materials Science (COS)
Christiaan P Richter
Carlos A Diaz
Tulsyan, Gaurav, "Doping Profile Measurements in Silicon Using Terahertz Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) Via Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation" (2015). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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