Microwave food packaging has become a tremendous element in the food manufacturing process. The purpose of any food packaging regulations concerned with the safety of the food is to control and limit the migration of substances from the packaging into the food. The main objective of this thesis is to test three different microwaving packaging materials that are the most common material in the market, viz. polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), migrated into four food simulant solutions. Four different simulant solutions were used based on the food type and FDA recommendations and regulations. These food simulants include vegetable pure oil, 3% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid, 15% (v/v) ethanol, and olive oil in the temperature of 100°C.
Headspace gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS) was used to determine the relative migration values from packaging materials into food by putting the materials into contact with simulants for 10 days in temperature of 5°C.
The analyzed results show that the migrations of food package are dependent on microwaving time, package material types and simulant types. The polystyrene (PS) caused the fastest relative migration in olive oil while the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has the most relative migration in food simulant containing 15% ethanol.
In addition, acetaldehyde, which may be hazardous to consumers, was found in both 3% aqueous acetic acid and olive oil after 10 minutes microwaving from PET.
Department, Program, or Center
Packaging Science (CAST)
K. Khana Mokwena Nthoiwa
Cai, Ruoyin, "Effect of Microwave Heating on The Migration of Additives From PS, PP and PET Container Into Food Simulants" (2013). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
RIT – Main Campus