This study examined teachers' perceptions of facilitators needed to include students with special needs. The Teachers' Opinions of Inclusive Education Needs Survey (TOIENS) was developed for this study in order to examine teachers' perceptions of facilitators to inclusion. Results found that teachers identified material and personnel supports, preservice and inservice training, and environmental/classroom features as all similarly necessary. Discrepancies were found, however, between identified facilitators and the availability of them. Personnel supports were generally considered to be available in the school districts, but several necessary material supports, training, and environmental/classroom features were considered to be unavailable.
School Psychology (MS)
Department, Program, or Center
Department of Psychology (CLA)
Kretz-Harvey, Hillary, "Teachers' receptions of facilitators and barriers to inclusion: A Regional survey" (2004). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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