This research was performed to assess the efficacy of tube-based field portable x-ray fluorescence (FXPXRF) devices to evaluate RCRA heavy metal concentrations in children's products and determine potential hazardous waste toxicity characteristics by comparative analysis to inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yields per SW6010B. Sample sets consisting of wood, plastic, rubber, bulk, plated/coated, and metal matrices were purchased, size-reduced as necessary and directly analyzed three-times for 120 seconds each via FPXRF operated in the Consumer Goods/Test All mode. Subsequently, the same samples were prepared in accordance to SW3050B and analyzed via ICP at an accredited contract laboratory. Side-by-side results analysis indicates that FPXRF consistently exhibits positive bias compared to standard laboratory methods in the majority of matrices due to XRFs abilities to estimate total metallic analyte concentrations versus extract-labile substances only. Instances in which FPXRFs positive bias was absent were believed attributed to suboptimal sample homogeneity or limited sample area compared to total sample volume of SW3050B extraction. Though FPXRFs overestimation of metallic analyte concentrations does not directly correlate to SW6010B ICP yields without application of correction factors, it does provide a better indication of total versus liberated analyte presence.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
X-ray spectroscopy; Heavy metals--Toxicology; Toys--Testing; Children's paraphernalia--Testing
Department, Program, or Center
Civil Engineering Technology Environmental Management and Safety (CAST)
Kohlbach, James, "Tube-based field-portable x-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) as a qualitative screening tool for resource conservation and recovery act (RCRA) metals in children’s products and comparison to total metals analyses to predict hazardous waste metals toxicity characteristic" (2009). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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