Current literature suggests that among students with disabilities, students with emotional and behavioral (EBD) disturbances are the most challenging to include. This study surveyed the perceptions of school psychologists and other professionals nationwide regarding this issue. Respondents indicated that students with EBD are still spending a large amount of their day outside of the regular education classroom. Rural districts reported a significantly higher amount of students with EBD being included in regular education, compared to urban districts. Individual student needs and "district vision, beliefs, and philosophy" ranked as the most important factors influencing attempts to educate students with EBD in a least restrictive environment. To enhance the inclusion of students with EBD, respondents reported the need for effective training, systematic support, and modification of the perceptions of regular education teachers. Urban and rural district respondents ranked the availability of grant money when making placement decisions as significantly more important than suburban districts. As years in practice decreased among the respondents, the reported need for effective training significantly increased. However, the importance placed on dedication, a clear vision, and philosophy/belief of district significantly decreased with fewer years in practice.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Emotional problems of children--United States; Behavior disorders in children--United States; Problem children--Education; Special education
Department, Program, or Center
Department of Psychology (CLA)
Crane, Kathryn and Scott, Larry, "The Inclusion of students with an emotional and behavioral disturbance (EBD) in regular education classrooms: A Survey of school psychologists in the United States" (2003). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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