It has been previously reported that the speed and contrast of a given film-developer combination is influenced by the addition of PEO to either the developer or to the emulsion. Factorial experiments were conducted upon Ag(Brl) and Ag(BrCl) films to determine the PEO development effects on hydroquinone and N-methyl-p-aminophenol developers of normal sulfite level. Various levels of exposure, bromide concentration, and PEO addition to the developer were employed to gain information about possible interactions as well as individual effects. Density-log time of development curves were obtained using the method of arrested development. Response variables were induction period and maximum rate of post-IP development. The PEO effect upon the induction period was qualitatively similar for both the bromoiodide and chlorobromide films, but depended upon the developing agent--the induction period increased with hydroquinone, but remained unchanged with N-methyl-p-aminophenol. The rate depended upon the silver halide grain composition--an increase was observed only when Agl was present. PEO addition had no influence upon the covering power. As the bromide level increased, the induction period increased and rate decreased. As the exposure level increased, induction period decreased and rate increased. A significant bromide-PEO interaction was observed only for the induction period of hydroquinone development for both films.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Photography--Developing and developers; Photographic chemicals
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School of Print Media (CIAS)
Durbin, Robert, "The influence of bromide and polyethylene oxide upon development kinetics" (1976). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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