The purpose of the study was to find if a correlation exists between a previously conducted visual whiteness ranking of 128 sheets of white office paper, from various manufacturers, and a ranking generated by affordable hand held colorimeters. Two different hand held colorimeters were used to measure the 128 sheets. The output from the colorimeters was in CIE chromaticity coordinates and CIELAB L* a* b* values. The lightness (L*) value was used to make a ranking for comparison to the visual ranking. The chromaticity coordinates were used for computing CIE Whiteness. The resulting whiteness index values were used to form a ranking for comparison to the visual ranking. The ranking comparisons were plotted, correlations determined, and regression analysis performed. The analysis demonstrated that a correlation does exist between the visual and instrument rankings. The scatter plots show that the relationship is most likely linear. The strongest correlations occurred with CIE Whiteness rankings generated from measurements using an X-Rite 948 hand held colorimeter set to Illuminant C or D₆₅. The strongest correlation had an r value of .953 with r² value of 90.8%.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Paper--Printing properties--Evaluation; Colorimetric analysis
Department, Program, or Center
School of Print Media (CIAS)
Harris, Lawrence David, "A Comparison of paper whiteness rankings: Visual vs. instrument generated" (1993). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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