This research study investigates Internet chat visual tools in communications used by Deaf and hard of hearing users and how the users interact with the chat tools expressing their visual language to convey the best message they can in general. A number of Internet chat tools consisting of visual emoticons have been established and implemented for online communications. These tools are generalized for public use. In this study, the research includes the current IM model, along with my recent studies, which use Deaf/hard of hearing for this project. An analysis of the results and prototype of this study on Internet Chat tools for Deaf and hard of hearing users is included. The majority of the Deaf and hard of hearing users prefer an animated library of smiley faces.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Telecommunications devices for the deaf; Deaf--Means of communication; Online chat groups--Computer programs; Teleconferencing
Department, Program, or Center
Information Sciences and Technologies (GCCIS)
Kowalsky, Lee, "Internet conferencing tools for deaf and hard of hearing users" (2001). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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