Medical advancement and societal acceptance in recent years has paved the way for gender affirmation surgery to become a growing subspecialty, with more transgender individuals seeking permanent methods to treating gender dysphoria. In a 2016 report from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), there had been a 20% increase in female-to-male gender affirmation surgeries over the past year, totaling over 1,700 surgeries (Schardein, 2020). Those seeking genital gender affirmation surgery, also known as ‘bottom’ surgery (Puckett, 2018), often have goals pertaining to the ability to urinate upright, with secondary goals relating to sexual penetration functions. Gender reconstruction procedures, such as phalloplasty, often have many urologic complications, or sequelae, that arise within the first few months post operation (Nikolavsky, 2017). These complications can have grave consequences if left untreated including sepsis, renal failure, etc., and overall decreased quality of life (Schardein, 2020). Thus, it is important to manage these urologic complications early. In an effort to highlight the importance of the urologic complications of radial free forearm flap (RFFF) phalloplasty in transmen1 patients, a short (3 minute) animation was created in two parts: (1)“Phalloplasty” and (2)”Urologic Complications”. This animation would provide contextual background information for the RFFF phalloplasty procedure, as well as highlight the most common urologic sequelae associated with this procedure. It was created with the intention of being presented to fellow urologists and the medical community, and serve as a precursor to Dr.Nikolavsky’s larger presentation regarding the use of various surgical techniques to repair the presented urologic sequelae on a case-by-case basis.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Phalloplasty--Interactive multimedia--Design; Phalloplasty--Complications--Interactive multimedia--Design
Department, Program, or Center
Medical Illustration (CHST)
Kittleman, Michelle, "Urologic Sequelae Following Phalloplasty: An Explanation of Common Complications Following Transmale Gender Affirmation Surgery" (2023). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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