Perioperative nurses use back tables (BT) to set up instruments for surgeries consisting of a single surface requiring repetitive lifting due to the stacked trays of surgery tools. Since such actions lead to increased physical (heavyweight of trays) and cognitive (reduced visibility and increased access time) demand, the new DinamicOR table (DT) has been developed. DT has the height adjustment capability and can add up to two shelves providing an extra working area for nurses. We evaluated DT vs. BT by conducting a laboratory experiment involving 16 participants, estimating the kinematics, kinetics, and collecting their subjective feedback, NASA task load index (NASA TLX), and ratings of perceived discomfort (RPE), and the time to complete pre-defined tool-finding tasks. Overall, our results indicated that DT was advantageous in terms of kinematics (e.g., smaller maximum shoulder angle, pvalue<0.001), kinetics (e.g., less shoulder moment, ~11% with p-value=0.012), and task completion time (p-values<0.0001). Using the DT, participants also reported reduced cognitive and physical workload for NASA TLX and RPE measures (p-values <0.004). However, maximum low-back moments are estimated to be larger by 12% (p-values<0.01). It is noteworthy that incorporating the DT during an actual surgery would reduce the number lift/lower by >60% due to the increased working areas (i.e., no need for stacking the surgery tool trays). Therefore, the cumulative physical demand is expected to be smaller for both shoulder and low-back areas. We believe that utilizing the DT over BT, particularly for longer surgeries such as the total knee replacement, would reduce both physical and mental demands and increase the efficiency of nurses to find the surgery tools, which in turn may also reduce the total time of surgery.

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Industrial and Systems Engineering (MS)

Department, Program, or Center

Industrial and Systems Engineering (KGCOE)


Ehsan Rashedi

Advisor/Committee Member

Matthew Marshall


RIT – Main Campus