Display technology has evolved in pursuit of perceptual pleasure by providing realism and visual impact. The endeavor of the evolution has brought HDR displays to the market. HDR displays, which have become the mainstream display technology recently, are considered not only the present but also the future of displays because of their daunting technical goals: A peak luminance of 10,000 cd/m^2 and near-monochromatic primaries. However, both positive and negative prospects in terms of perceptual aspects for future HDR displays coexist. On the positive side, it is expected that HDR displays will provide better image quality and more vivid color. On the negative side, apart from technical barriers such as production cost and power consumption, HDR displays will induce side effects, for example, observer metamerism, which refers to the phenomenon that color matches for one observer result in color mismatches for other observers. This particular side effect could be a severe issue in HDR displays as their narrow-band primaries likely worsen the color mismatches. Hence, critical to the success of future HDR displays is dealing properly with the perceptual trade-offs. In other words, future HDR display designers need to select physical specifications that maximize perceptual benefits while minimizing adverse effects. This dissertation aims at exploring both potentially positive and negative aspects of future HDR displays, using various perceptual assessments. In particular, the dissertation focuses on two physical factors of a display device: peak luminance and chromaticity color gamut, and the effects of the two factors on related human perception: image quality, observer metamerism, and colorfulness. The ultimate goal of this dissertation is to address the related human perception aroused by the physical factors and propose models to help design future HDR displays. In order to achieve the goal, the dissertation first addresses the image quality trade-off relationship between peak luminance and chromaticity color gamut. A psychophysical experiment was used to develop models to predict equivalent image quality under the trade-off between peak luminance and chromaticity gamut as a function of the perceptual attributes lightness and chroma. Second, a novel approach based on a computational evaluation to investigate potential observer metamerism in HDR displays was explored. This research shows how observer metamerism in HDR displays varies with varying peak luminance and chromaticity color gamut. This research aims at developing a straightforward model to predict observer metamerism in HDR displays based on the computational evaluation. Third, a psychophysical experiment to derive a colorfulness scale for very saturated colors is carried out. This experiment focuses on understanding how the sensitivity of the human visual system responds to highly-saturated colors that extend beyond the stimuli studied in previous research. The colorfulness scale would help both advanced lighting system and display system designers. Fourth, the dissertation suggests an evaluation tool devised based on the observer metamerism and colorfulness scale works that can be utilized to determine the physical specification of HDR displays, maximizing perceptually positive effects while minimizing perceptually negative effects at the same time.

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Color Science (Ph.D.)


Gabriel J. Diaz

Advisor/Committee Member

Mark D. Fairchild

Advisor/Committee Member

Susan P. Farnand


RIT – Main Campus