Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have become an increasingly popular choice to ingest nicotine, especially among adolescents. It is assumed that with a rise of ENDS usage, more people will be looking for strategies to help quit the devices. As previous research has revealed the efficacy of stress reduction interventions to aid in the cessation of nicotine, a stress reducing writing intervention based in self-affirmation, value affirmation, was evaluated for its ability to reduce anxiety and craving for nicotine in individuals using ENDS. Nicotine dependent participants (N = 92) using ENDS were randomly assigned to complete either a value affirmation writing exercise or a control writing exercise prior to viewing a video designed to induce anxiety. While anxiety and craving for nicotine significantly increased across conditions following the video stressor, no significant differences were observed between groups. Commentary on the results and implications of this study are discussed.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Nicotine addiction--Research; Vaping--Research; Affirmations--Health aspects
Experimental Psychology (MS)
Department, Program, or Center
Joseph S. Baschnagel
Bell, Justin, "The Effects of a Value-Affirmation Writing Exercise on Stress and Craving for Nicotine in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Users" (2021). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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