Advanced health monitoring and diagnostics technology are essential to reduce the unrivaled number of human fatalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Traditionally, gold standard CVD diagnosis involves direct measurements of the aortic blood pressure (central BP) and flow by cardiac catheterization, which can lead to certain complications. Understanding the inner-workings of the cardiovascular system through patient-specific cardiovascular modeling can provide new means to CVD diagnosis and relating treatment. BP and flow waves propagate back and forth from heart to the peripheral sites, while carrying information about the properties of the arterial network. Their speed of propagation, magnitude and shape are directly related to the properties of blood and arterial vasculature. Obtaining functional and anatomical information about the arteries through clinical measurements and medical imaging, the digital twin of the arterial network of interest can be generated. The latter enables prediction of BP and flow waveforms along this network. Point of care devices (POCDs) can now conduct in-home measurements of cardiovascular signals, such as electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), ballistocardiogram (BCG) and even direct measurements of the pulse transit time (PTT). This vital information provides new opportunities for designing accurate patient-specific computational models eliminating, in many cases, the need for invasive measurements.
One of the main efforts in this area is the development of noninvasive cuffless BP measurement using patient’s PTT. Commonly, BP prediction is carried out with regression models assuming direct or indirect relationships between BP and PTT. However, accounting for the nonlinear FSI mechanics of the arteries and the cardiac output is indispensable. In this work, a monotonicity-preserving quasi-1D FSI modeling platform is developed, capable of capturing the hyper-viscoelastic vessel wall deformation and nonlinear blood flow dynamics in arbitrary arterial networks. Special attention has been dedicated to the correct modeling of discontinuities, such as mechanical properties mismatch associated with the stent insertion, and the intertwining dynamics of multiscale 3D and 1D models when simulating the arterial network with an aneurysm. The developed platform, titled Cardiovascular Flow ANalysis (CardioFAN), is validated against well-known numerical, in vitro and in vivo arterial network measurements showing average prediction errors of 5.2%, 2.8% and 1.6% for blood flow, lumen cross-sectional area, and BP, respectively. CardioFAN evaluates the local PTT, which enables patient-specific calibration and its application to input signal reconstruction. The calibration is performed based on BP, stroke volume and PTT measured by POCDs. The calibrated model is then used in conjunction with noninvasively measured peripheral BP and PTT to inversely restore the cardiac output, proximal BP and aortic deformation in human subjects. The reconstructed results show average RMSEs of 1.4% for systolic and 4.6% for diastolic BPs, as well as 8.4% for cardiac output. This work is the first successful attempt in implementation of deterministic cardiovascular models as add-ons to wearable and smart POCD results, enabling continuous noninvasive monitoring of cardiovascular health to facilitate CVD diagnosis.
Department, Program, or Center
Alexander S. Liberson
Steven W. Day
Seyed Vahedein, Yashar, "Methods and Algorithms for Cardiovascular Hemodynamics with Applications to Noninvasive Monitoring of Proximal Blood Pressure and Cardiac Output Using Pulse Transit Time" (2019). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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Available for download on Wednesday, December 23, 2020