This study draws on design-based research on an ARIS–based mobile augmented reality game for teaching early 20th century history. New design principles derived from the study include the use of supra-reveals, and bias mirroring. Supra-reveals are a kind of foreshadowing event in order to ground historical happenings in the wider enduring historical understanding. Bias mirroring refers to a nonplayer character echoing back a player’s biased behavior, in order to open the player to listening to alternative perspectives. Supra-reveals engendered discussion of historical themes early in the game experience. The results showed that use of a cluster of NPC bias mirroring techniques enhanced student ability to articulate points of view previously unavailable to them.

Date of creation, presentation, or exhibit


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Presented at the (Games Learning Society) GLS12 Conference, Madison, Wisconsin, August 17-19, 2016.

Document Type

Conference Paper

Department, Program, or Center

School of Interactive Games and Media (GCCIS)


RIT – Main Campus