In the era of Chandra and XMM-Newton, the detection (or non-detection) of diffuse and/or point-like X-ray sources within planetary nebulae (PNe) yields important, unique insight into PN shaping processes. Diffuse X-ray sources, whether due to “hot bubbles” or to collimated outflows or jets, allow us to probe the energetic shocks within PN wind interaction regions. Meanwhile, X-ray point sources provide potential diagnostics of magnetic fields, accretion disks, and/or binary companions at PN cores. Here, I highlight recent X-ray observational results and trends that have the potential to shed new light on the origin and evolution of the structure of PNe.

Date of creation, presentation, or exhibit



Presented at Asymmetrical Planetary Nebulae IV, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, June 18-22, 2007.

Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works in February 2014.

Document Type

Conference Paper

Department, Program, or Center

Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science (COS)


RIT – Main Campus