Forty-eight subjects (24 men, 24 women) responded to 20 word stimuli presented by a microcomputer program that recorded each subject's response latency and response to each stimulus word. Emotionality of stimulus word and presence/absence of an observer were independently varied. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference in latencies attributable to the emotionality of the stimulus word, whereas neither the presence/absence of the observer nor the interaction effect was significant. The results suggest the possible use of latency analysis as a tool in situations where an objective, statistical, and easily obtainable evaluative measurement of the level of emotionality of various verbal stimuli is desired.
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Isaacs, M., & Chen, K. (1990). Presence/Absence of an Observer in a Word Association Test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(1-2), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.1990.9674045
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