Past research suggests that manufacturers market cigarettes through advertisements associating cigarettes with qualities and behaviors valued by the target audience. Using content analysis, the present study compares the visual and verbal/textual product associations in cigarette advertisements in youth- (People and Sports Illustrated) and adult-oriented (Time and Better Homes and Gardens) magazines. Results show significant differences in product association categories, with ads in youth magazines significantly more likely than those in adult magazines to employ associations related to social gatherings/friendship, romance/eroticism, independence/self-reliance/rebellion, prize giveaways/merchandise, and pleasure/refreshment/flavor/quality. This study adds to the body of knowledge on the content of cigarette advertisements and contributes to the understanding of techniques used in targeting youth with advertisements for a product with proven negative health consequences.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Advertising--Cigarettes--Research; Target marketing--Research; Cigarette smokers--Effects of advertising on; Teenagers--Effects of advertising on; Persuasion (Psychology)
Department, Program, or Center
Department of Communication (CLA)
Carmichael, Pamela L., "Persuasion by association: A Content analysis of cigarette advertisements aimed at the youth market" (2004). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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