Extra-year programs are widely used to help students who are deemed "unready" to master the curriculum of the next grade. This study investigated the academic effectiveness of a pre-first grade program in a suburban, predominantly Caucasian, upper middle class school system. Twenty-five matched pairs of children were selected for the study based on a readiness score on the Brigance K & 1 screening. Children who spent an extra year in pre-first grade were matched with youngsters who proceeded directly to the first grade based on gender, date of birth, and Brigance score. While no significant differences were found between the two groups of students on the basis of Iowa achievement test scores in reading and language, a significant difference was found between the two groups in mathematics (fourth grade).
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Education, Preschool; Academic achievement; Mathematical ability--Ability testing
Department, Program, or Center
Department of Psychology (CLA)
Grossman, Betsey, "The Effectiveness of a pre-first grade program on later academic achievement" (1997). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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