The ability to do mixed-signal IC design in a CMOS technology has been a driving force for manufacturing personal mobile electronic products such as cellular phones, digital audio players, and personal digital assistants. As CMOS has moved to ultra-thin oxide technologies, where oxide thicknesses are less than 3 nm, this type of design has been threatened by the direct tunneling of carriers though the gate oxide. This type of tunneling, which increases exponentially with decreasing oxide thickness, is a source of MOSFET gate current. Its existence invalidates the simplifying design assumption of infinite gate resistance. Its problems are typically avoided by switching to a high-&kappa/metal gate technology or by including a second thick(er) oxide transistor. Both of these solutions come with undesirable increases in cost due to extra mask and processing steps. Furthermore, digital circuit solutions to the problems created by direct tunneling are available, while analog circuit solutions are not. Therefore, it is desirable that analog circuit solutions exist that allow the design of mixed-signal circuits with ultra-thin oxide MOSFETs. This work presents a methodology that develops these solutions as a less costly alternative to high-&kappa/metal gate technologies or thick(er) oxide transistors. The solutions focus on transistor sizing, DC biasing, and the design of current mirrors and differential amplifiers. They attempt to minimize, balance, and cancel the negative effects of direct tunneling on analog design in traditional (non-high-&kappa/metal gate) ultra-thin oxide CMOS technologies. They require only ultra-thin oxide devices and are investigated in a 65 nm CMOS technology with a nominal VDD of 1 V and a physical oxide thickness of 1.25 nm. A sub-1 V bandgap voltage reference that requires only ultra-thin oxide MOSFETs is presented (TC = 251.0 ppm/°C). It utilizes the developed methodology and illustrates that it is capable of suppressing the negative effects of direct tunneling. Its performance is compared to a thick-oxide voltage reference as a means of demonstrating that ultra-thin oxide MOSFETs can be used to build the analog component of a mixed-signal system.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Metal oxide semiconductors, Complementary--Design and construction; Tunneling (Physics); Nanoelectronics
Microsystems Engineering (Ph.D.)
Department, Program, or Center
Microsystems Engineering (KGCOE)
Bohannon, Eric, "Analog integrated circuit design in ultra-thin oxide CMOS technologies with significant direct tunneling-induced gate current" (2011). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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