Bow, Warp and Slip measurements were used to characterize push/pull rates of a three inch oxidation furnace. The push/pull rates were varied from 3 to 30 inches per minute. To minimize the amount of bow, warp, and slip while still being time efficient, recommended push rates of 12 and pull rates of 3 in/mm should were found.
"The Affects of High Temperature Steps on Bow, Warp and Slip of a Wafer,"
Journal of the Microelectronic Engineering Conference: Vol. 4
, Article 24.
Available at: http://scholarworks.rit.edu/ritamec/vol4/iss1/24