Dual damascene fabrication requires precise dry-etching. Two different methods were investigated: via-first and trench-first. It was found under conditions tested with that micromasking occurred, which was caused by damage to the resist. This caused the dielectric regions to be etched in the unmasked regions, as well as causing significant roughness. However, both etch techniques were found to have the capability of being used in a university dual damascene process.
"Etching for Dual Damascene Fabrication,"
Journal of the Microelectronic Engineering Conference: Vol. 18
, Article 17.
Available at: http://scholarworks.rit.edu/ritamec/vol18/iss1/17