In the era of Chandra and XMM-Newton, the detection (or non-detection) of diffuse and/or point-like X-ray sources within planetary nebulae (PNe) yields important, unique insight into PN shaping processes. Diffuse X-ray sources, whether due to “hot bubbles” or to collimated outflows or jets, allow us to probe the energetic shocks within PN wind interaction regions. Meanwhile, X-ray point sources provide potential diagnostics of magnetic fields, accretion disks, and/or binary companions at PN cores. Here, I highlight recent X-ray observational results and trends that have the potential to shed new light on the origin and evolution of the structure of PNe.
Date of creation, presentation, or exhibit
Department, Program, or Center
Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science (COS)
Kastner, Joel, "X-ray emission from planetary nebulae and their central stars: A Status report" (2008). Accessed from
RIT – Main Campus