An experimental analysis of Floyd–Steinberg and clustered dot halftones printed with both cyan and black toner on both 300 dpi and 600 dpi laser electrophotographic printers. The printed halftone ramps were measured as reflectance, R, versus coverage of toner, C in units of mass/area. Gravimetric analysis was used to measure coverage. Rather than modeling tone reproduction as a bilevel model of discrete dots on paper, the images were modeled as contiguous layers of colorant on paper. Both the Beer–Lambert and Kubelka–Munk laws were applied. Just as ideal bilevel halftone models require significant modifications to fit experimental data, so too were modifications of the continuous tone model required. The ideal continuous tone model tended to over-compensate for the traditional halftone corrections called “dot-gain”. Thus, the corrections applied to the continuous tone model were called ink “anti-gain” to emphasize the analogy with bilevel models. The resulting corrections resulted in reasonably good agreement between the model and the data. Moreover, exploring some of the characteristics of the model indicated a reasonable physical interpretation of the corrections that were applied.

Publication Date



This article may be accessed from the publisher's website (additional fees may apply) at: http://www.imaging.org/store/epub.cfm?abstrid=30161 ISSN:1062-3701 Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works in February 2014.

Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science (COS)


RIT – Main Campus