New Design Principles for Mobile History Games

Owen Gottlieb


This study draws on design-based research on an ARIS–based mobile augmented reality game for

teaching early 20th century history. New design principles derived from the study include the use of

supra-reveals, and bias mirroring. Supra-reveals are a kind of foreshadowing event in order to ground

historical happenings in the wider enduring historical understanding. Bias mirroring refers to a nonplayer

character echoing back a player’s biased behavior, in order to open the player to listening to

alternative perspectives. Supra-reveals engendered discussion of historical themes early in the game

experience. The results showed that use of a cluster of NPC bias mirroring techniques enhanced student

ability to articulate points of view previously unavailable to them.