Although a leader's integrity seems to be essential for effective leadership, no empirical studies have examined the relationship between leader behavioral integrity (the consistency between words and actions) and follower job performance. Further, no empirical studies have examined how follower behavioral integrity might also impact job performance. Using data from three studies, we addressed these issues by testing the effects of leader and follower behavioral integrity on follower job performance. Study 1 was an online experiment in which behavioral integrity was manipulated in written scenarios; Study 2 was a field study; and Study 3 was a longitudinal lab study with temporary work teams. Findings from the studies indicated that leader behavioral integrity was not directly related to follower job performance, but was related indirectly via trust in the leader and follower satisfaction with the leader. Results also indicated that follower behavioral integrity had a significant impact on job performance, both directly and indirectly via leader trust in the follower and satisfaction with the follower. Finally, results indicated that perceptions of behavioral integrity were based primarily on individual differences and not higher level-of-analysis effects.
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Palanski, Michael and Yammarino, Francis, "The Leadership quarterly: An International journal of political, social and behavioral science" (2011). Accessed from
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