We explore possible effects of vacuum energy on the evolution of black holes. If the universe contains a cosmological constant, and if black holes can absorb energy from the vacuum, then black hole evaporation could be greatly suppressed. For the magnitude of the cosmological constant suggested by current observations, black holes larger than $\sim 4 \times 10^{24}$ g would accrete energy rather than evaporate. In this scenario, all stellar and supermassive black holes would grow with time until they reach a maximum mass scale of $\sim 6 \times 10^{55}$ g, comparable to the mass contained within the present day cosmological horizon. (Refer to PDF file for exact formulas.)

Publication Date



Also archived at: arXiv:astro-ph/9902118 v1 8 Feb 1999 / The date stated on this paper is incorrect. This work was supported by funds from the University of Michigan.ISSN:0370-2693 Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works in February 2014.

Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

School of Physics and Astronomy (COS)


RIT – Main Campus