ALFRED (http://alfred.med.yale.edu) is an actively curated database designed to make allele frequency data on anthropologically defined human population samples readily available to the scientific community and to link these polymorphism data to the various molecular genetics-human genome databases. Users can search for frequency data through several search options including locus symbol, site name and a specific author's publications. Data may be viewed both as numeric tables and graphically. ALFRED is rapidly expanding and has doubled in size in the past year to >12,000 frequency tables (one population typed for one site or haplotype) involving 737 polymorphisms and 358 populations. All of the data in ALFRED are considered to be in the public domain and available for use in research and teaching. Researchers can download data useful for analysis in a variety of formats including a single compressed "data dump" file or separate files of relevant tables, in the declared XML format. The Data Type Definition (DTD) for validating the XML format is also available for download. The existing data are primarily those extracted from publications by curatorial staff or made available from a few laboratories. New data and new links to other databases are routinely being added to ALFRED. Presently addition of new data is focussed on popular and user-suggested polymorphic sites to help researchers to conduct comprehensive analyses. We now have systems in place to accept data directly from researchers. While XML data or a spreadsheet with the necessary descriptive information in specific columns are preferable, we can also accept data in most any electronic form if the descriptive information is submitted in parallel.

Publication Date



Article may be found at: http://genetics.faseb.org/cgi-bin/ashg03s/ashg03 Ongoing support of ALFRED is provided by NSF grant BCS-0096588.ISSN:0002-9297 Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works in February 2014.

Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences (COS)


RIT – Main Campus