Emissions from passenger ferries operating in urban harbors may contribute significantly to emissions inventories and commuter exposure to air pollution. In particular, ferries are problematic because of high emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from primarily unregulated diesel engines. This paper explores technical solutions to reduce pollution from passenger ferries operating in the New York–New Jersey Harbor. The paper discusses and demonstrates a mixed-integer, nonlinear programming model used to identify optimal control strategies for meeting NOx and PM reduction targets for 45 privately owned commuter ferries in the harbor. Results from the model can be used by policy-makers to craft programs aimed at achieving least-cost reduction targets.

Publication Date



Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works in February 2014.

Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

Sustainability (GIS)


RIT – Main Campus